Transoxiana Home

Transoxiana 4 - Julio 2002

The Sasanians in Africa

Matteo Compareti

Versión en español aquí

Map of Sasanian World

The seventh century A.D. is a period of ancient history scantly known especially for the intricate history of late Sasanian Persia (226-642).

In order to reconstruct the events of such period, scholars mostly base their argumentation on Byzantine sources [Christensen, 1944 (reprint, 1971), pp. 74-77; Pertusi, 1971; Papathomopoulos, 1983; Haldon, 1990, pp. xvii-xxxiii; Palmer, 1992] (obviously not impartial), even if also Islamic [Christensen, 1944, pp. 59-74] and eastern Christian sources [for the Armenian sources: Christensen, 1944, p. 77-79; von Esbroeck, 1987; for the Syriac sources: Brock, 1984; for the Georgian sources: Toumanoff, 1943; for the Coptic sources: Altheim-Stiehl, 1992; Altheim-Stiehl, 1998; Butler, 1902, pp. 69-92, 498-507; for the non-Christian (and scarce) Persian and other Iranian languages sources: Widengren, 1983, pp. 1269-1283; Schippmann, 1990, pp. 3-9 ; Cereti, 1995-1997] result extremely important.

In the last years of 6th century, the Byzantine Emperor Mauritius (582-602) agreed a potentially lasting peace treatise with Persia through the support granted to the Shãhanshãh Khosrow II Parvêz (590-628) in attaining his throne usurped by the rebel general Bahrãm VI Chubin (590-591) [Christensen, 1944, pp. 443-445; Goubert, 1949; Garsoïan, 1983, pp. 579; Frendo, 1989]. In that occasion Khosrow II gave back to the Byzantines those parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasia taken by his predecessors and even returned some precious Christian relics stolen by the Persians at the time of the wars of his grandfather -Khosrow I Anõshîrvãn (531-579)- with Justinian (527-565) [Peeters, 1947; Higgins, 1955; Stratos, 1968, pp. 14-56; Scarcia, 2000].

This exceptional period of peace was interrupted when a revolt took place in the Byzantine Empire and the usurper Phocas (602-610) ascended to the throne. Mauritius with most of his family were slaughtered causing Khosrow indignation and giving to the Persians the pretext to invade the easternmost fringes of the Byzantine Empire. Officially, the Sasanian armies helped the Byzantine generals rebelled to Phocas, but soon the real intentions of Khosrow were revealed when Heraclius (610-641) defeated Phocas (who was put to death) and was proclaimed Emperor. In fact, Khosrow refused to recognise Heraclius and began a vast scale invasion of the Byzantine Empire which leaded to the siege of the same Constantinople (626) [Barishic, 1954; Stratos, 1968, pp. 145-150, 173-196] and to the brief annexation to Persia of part of Anatolia (609-629) [Stratos, 1968, pp. 64-65, 104-105, 115-117, 152-153, 173-196; Foss, 1975; Schippmann, 1990, pp. 66-70], Syria (611-629) [Stratos, 1968, pp. 63-64, 104-105, 107-109; Morony, 1987], Palestine (614-629) [Stratos, 1968, pp. 107-111, 252-255; Schik, 1992; Atlante storico del popolo ebraico, 1995, p. 76; Maeir, 2000, p. 178, note 62] and Egypt (616/619-629) [Dihel, 1896, pp. 517-532; Christensen, 1944, p. 447; Stratos, 1968, pp. 7-9, 111-114, 123, 247, 283-285; Mac Coull, 1986, p. 308-309; Altheim-Stiehl, 1991; Altheim-Stiehl, 1992; Altheim-Stiehl, 1998. For other general works on Persian-Byzantine relationships in the early 6th-7th century: Garsoïan, 1983, p. 586; Shahbazi, 1990, p. 590; Haldon, 1990, pp. 33-35, 42-46; Carile, 2000. See also: Martindale, 1992; for a very good map about the situation in geographical terms: Atlas zur Geschichte, 1973, 22.I].

The occupation of Egypt is the first recorded evidence of the Sasanian presence on African soil [in Egypt -such as in other parts of Roman Africa- the Manichaean creed is attested in written sources, so it is possible to suppose, during its first diffusion, at least one contact between the Manichaean missionaries (in the 3rd century A.D. mostly Persian) and the local population; on Manichaeism in Egypt and Northern Africa: Jarry, 1968; Polotsky, 1996; Decret, 1999].

Actually, a first encounter between Persia and an African people had already happened when Khosrow I expelled the Christian Aksumites (or Abyssinians) from Yemen in c. 570 A.D. [Conti Rossini, 1928, pp. 195-201; Harmatta, 1974; Muller, 1984, pp. 129-130; Smith, 1988, p. 129; al-'Mad'aj, 1988, p. 2].

The kingdom of Aksum was founded in nowadays Eritrea and Ethiopia by a Semitic-speaking language people originally immigrated in Eastern Africa from Southern Arabia around 6th-5th century B.C. [Giglio, 1980, p. 14; Anfray, 1990, p. 57; Phillipson, 1998, pp. 41-42]. The Aksumites accepted Christianism in the 4th century [officially around 325 A.D.: Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, p. 311; Phillipson, 1998, pp. 112; see also: Hable Sellassie, 1969, p. 5, n. 2] but, at least since 1st century A.D., they have developed a rich and highly civilised culture mostly based on the control of the maritime trade routes linking Roman-Byzantine Egypt with India [Monneret de Villard, 1948; Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, pp. 328-329, 345; Kobischanov, 1969; Kobishchanov, 1979, pp. 171-182; Munro-Hay, 1982; Munro-Hay, 1991, pp. 52-60; Weiner, 1990, pp. 403-405; Munro-Hay, 1996. In the monastery of Dabra Dammò were recovered some Kushan golden coins dated approximately to 2nd century A.D.: Mordini, 1960.a. One Kushana coin is reported to have been excavated in Zimbabwe: Horton, 1996, p. 448. The Kushana had intense commercial relations with Roman Egypt: Sherkova, 1991].

Aksum was in good relations with the Byzantines for the whole of its existence (lasted until 7th century [There is some evidence about a certain importance still devoted to Aksum by the Arabs in the beginning of 8th century, since in the paintings of Qusayr 'Amra (711-715) there is a representation of the Negus --in a very bad state of preservation-- among the six kings defeated by Islam: Conti Rossini, 1928, p. 214; Creswell, 1979, pp. 400-409; Almagro, Caballero, Zozaya, Almagro, 1975, p. 57, pl. XVII.a] and in the 6th century it was involved in the war which opposed Byzantium to Persia for a series of economic reasons [Smith, 1954, pp. 426-429; Harmatta, 1974; Harmatta, 2000]. In c. 525 the Aksumite Negus Kaleb Ella Asbeha prepared a naval expedition against the Himyarite king Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar (known also as Dhu Nuwas), who persecuted the Christians and had tried to stop the interference of the Abyssinians in South Arabia [Smith, 1954, pp. 451-462; Macmichael, 1967, p. 10; Kobishchanov, 1979, pp. 105-111; Bosworth, 1983, pp. 604-609; General History of Africa. II, 1990, pp. 203-233; Anfray, 1990, pp. 70-86; Munro-Hay, 1991, pp. 84-87; Phillipson, 1998, pp. 51, 112, 124].

Between the 3rd and the 4th century A.D. the kingdom of Himyar united Yemen for the first time after defeating Saba and Hadramawt [von Wissmann, 1964; Doe, 1982, pp. 67-70; Gajda, 1996; de Maigret, 1996, pp. 223-237]. Later, Himyar imposed a kind of protectorate on Central Arabia, governed by their vassals, the Hujrids (also known as Kinda) [Shahîd, 1986.a; Robin, 1996].

In 521 A.D. the Christian Ma'adikarib Ya'fur became king and, supported by the Aksumites, began a series of military expeditions against the Central Arabian tribes in order to reinforce his power and prepare a war against the Lakhmids of al-Hira (or Nasrids, Northern Arabian vassals of the Sasanians) [Smith, 1954, pp. 441-448; Shahîd, 1986.b; Bosworth, 1983, pp. 597-602]. After his death, ascended to the throne the Judaist Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar, mortal enemy of the Aksumites and their Christian allies [Gajda, 2000].

The Emperor Justin (518-527) made pression on Kaleb for an intervention, officially to protect the persecuted Christians of Yemen, but actually to control one of the passages of goods from India destined to Byzantium. In c. 525 A.D. (or 528-530 for others) the Aksumites leaded personally by their Negus defeated the Himyarites and proclaimed king a Christian named Sumiyafa' Ashwa'. After the departure of Kaleb, the Aksumite general 'Abraha took the power and promised to Justinian to attack the Lakhmids. In 552 he penetrated deeply in Central Arabia until Mecca [Smith, 1954, pp. 431-441; Anfray, 1990, p. 86; van Donzel, 1999, p. 8; Gajda, 2000, p. 228].

Abu Morra Sayf b. Dhu Yazan of the royal Himyarite house asked for an external intervention [Bosworth, 1985, p. 226; van Donzel, 1999, p. 9]. The Byzantines and the Lakhmids refused to send their troops but not the Persians. According to al-Tabari [Zotenberg, 1869, pp. 210-211; Nöldeke, 1879 (reprint, 1973), p. 167], Khosrow I Anoshirvan armed eight ships with eight hundred released Daylamite prisoners, leaded by a certain Vahrez [Exactly as for many other Sasanian names, it is not clear if this was a personal name or a high-rank title: Bosworth, 1985, p. 226; van Donzel, 1999, p. 9; Gajda, 2000, p. 229], and with this army he defeated 'Abraha's son Masruq. Sayf b. Dhu Yazan was proclaimed chief of the reign, now a Sasanian protectorate known as Samaran [Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, p. 313; Monneret de Villard, 1948, p. 157], but after few years he died during a revolt that probably happened between 575 and 578. Vahrez intervened once more but this time with a more numerous army.

After the pacification of the region Sayf b. Dhu Yazan's son, Ma'adikarib, took the place of his father, while Vahrez became the first governor and head of a stable Sasanian military group still active after the Islamization of Yemen [Bosworth, 1985; Crone, 1998. On the discovery in Yemen of a unique carved capital displaying Sasanian elements: Keall, 1995.a; Keall, 1995.b; Keall, 1998. For two general works on Sasanian-Arab relationships before Islam published with very well-updated bibliographies: Bosworth, 1985-87; Bosworth, 1983]. This was certainly a first real contact between the Sasanians and an African kingdom, anyway the concrete Persian presence in the black continent happened only during the reign of Khosrow II.

The Sasanian conquest of Egypt between 616 and 620 still presents some obscure points. First of all, there is a certain confusion about the Persian general who leaded the invasion. The sources give accounts of two military personalities: Shahrbaraz and Shahin [Christensen, 1944, p. 448]. Several recent studies are more inclined to recognise the conqueror of Egypt in the person of Shahrbaraz, the same who was in very good relations with Byzantium and finally ascended the throne of Persia for few days in 630 [Stratos, 1968, pp. 231-234, 309-311; Mango, 1985; Haldon, 1990, p. 352; Hickey, 1993]. Shahrbaraz in 629 evacuated the territory taken from by Byzantines and around 630 gave back the Holy Cross, profaned and transferred in Persia during the sack of Jerusalem in 614 [Frolow, 1953; Stratos, 1968, pp. 245-252].

Regarding this episode there is some evidence about an indirect contact between Persia and Abyssinia. In fact, the Aksumite Negus Armah (7th century) issued a particular kind of coinage with a possible representation of the Holy Sepulchre just to commemorate the recovery of Jerusalem from the Sasanians [Munro-Hay, 1993, p. 32]. Then, it is not clear if the Sasanian limited their presence to the Egyptian territory or passed in the neighbouring regions. The written sources, in fact, reveal some hints to a probable Sasanian plundering in Cyrenaica in the west and Nubia in the south, exactly as happened during the conquest of Egypt acted by the Achaemenid Emperor Cambyses (529-522 B.C.) [Snowden, 1971, pp. 121-125, 184; Law, 1978, pp. 98-103, 105; Bresciani, 1985 (reprint 1993); Morkot, 1991; Török, 1997, pp. 377-392; Huyse, 1999]. Some Achaemenid monuments accompanied by carved inscriptions report in effect the possible condition of regions such as Putaya (Libya) and Kushiya (Ethiopia) as rendered tributary of the Persian Empire (fig. 1) [For a detailed study on the presence of these two peoples in the Achaemenian monuments and inscriptions: Walser, 1966, pp. 27-67, 99-101, pls. 29-30, 79-82, foldout pls. 1-2. See also: Conti Rossini, 1928, p. 54; Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, p. 305, note 3; Monneret de Villard, 1948, pp. 154-155; Leroy, 1963, pl. CLXII, a-b; Snowden, 1971, p. 125; Roaf, 1974, pp. 75-92, 137-143; Shinnie, 1978.a, p. 223; Cook, 1985 (reprint 1993), pp. 214, 219, 247, 263; Bresciani, 1985, pp. 503, 523; Tourovets, 2001, pp. 227, 251].

Figure 1

According to Herodotus, these were not real Ethiopians but Nubians, i.e. the black inhabitants of the region bordering Southern Egypt [Cook, 1985, p. 263; Tourovets, 2001, pp. 250-251], albeit the incontrovertible similarities between the aspect of the black tributaries depicted at Persepolis and that of a pre-Aksumite Ethiopian statue and reliefs (fig. 2) [Leroy, 1963; Anfray, 1990, fig. at p. 40; Munro-Hay, 1996, p. 413].

Figure 2

In the 7th century the most powerful kingdoms lying south of Egypt were Nobadia (extended from the border with Egypt until the Third Cataract), Mukurra (the Makouria of classical sources or Dongola, extended from the border with Nobadia until the Fifth Cataract) and Alwa (Alodia, from the Fifth Cataract to the confluence of the Blue Nile with White Nile).

During the 6th century A.D. the Byzantines missionaries converted to Christianism these three black kingdoms: in c. 543 Nobadia adhered to Monophysitism, between 567 and 570 Mukurra became Melkite and in 570 Longinus (disciple of the exiled Patriarch Theodosius) converted to Monophysitism Alwa [Michalowski, 1967, pp. 13-15; Frend, 1968; Shinnie, 1978.b, pp. 559-564; Giglio, 1980, p. 12-13; Vantini, 1981, pp. 33-50; Munro-Hay, 1982-83, pp. 89-91; Kirwan, 1984, pp. 121-132; General History of Africa. II, 1990, pp. 185-191; General History of Africa. III, 1992, pp. 103-117. On the Byzantine demand for wild animals from this region: Papathomopoulos, 1983, p. 340]. Mukurra became Monophysite only after the Arab advance in this region (half of the 7th century).

According to Mas'udi who visited Egypt in 940, Mukurra absorbed Nobadia in 651 and Alwa as well became its tributary [Giglio, 1980, p. 80. The unification of the whole of Nubia under Dongola seems to have occurred around 697 by the king Merkurios: Shinnie, 1978.b, p. 569; General History of Africa. II, 1990, p. 187].

The archaeological excavations at Faras, the capital of ancient Nobadia, revealed the remains of civil and religious buildings which presented in the lower stratification traces of destruction ascribable to 7th century. Monneret de Villard and Michalowsky, the first archaeologists who excavated the site, linked the destruction of the site to the Sasanian invasion of 616-619 [Monneret de Villard, 1938, pp. 70, 186, 224; Michalowski, 1966, p. 9; Michalowski, 1967, p. 16; Michalowski, 1969, p. 15 ; Vantini, 1971, pp. 73, 87-88, 171-172, 181, 191, 291; Jakobielski, 1972, p. 25 note 53, p. 27 note 15; Rassart, 1973, p. 370; Shinnie, 1978.b, p. 560, 564; Vantini, 1981, p. 60; Vantini, 1985, p. 104, note 1. According to some ancient sources, the Sasanians reached Ethiopia: Stratos, 1968, p. 114; Vantini, 1971, pp. 87-88; Morony, 1997, p. 79]. A bronze ewer found in the Ballana tombs, dated cautiously to 4th-5th or 6th-7th centuries, could represent an evidence of the changes between Nubia and the Iranian world since its form remember very much Central Asian shapes [Mango, 2000, fig. 1:3].

There are no material traces of a stable Persian occupation in Cyrenaica. In some written sources there are brief hints to the Sasanian submission of Libya (that is to say Cyrenaica, divided under the Byzantines in the Prefecture of Libya Pentapolis, in its westernmost part, and the Prefecture of Libya Inferior, just bordering Egypt ) [Stratos, 1968, p. 114; Vantini, 1970, pp. 87-88; Pertusi, 1971, p. 618; Altheim-Stiehl, 1992, p. 87]. Specifically on the period between 575 and 650, the sources do not say anything [Roques, 1992, p. 18], a fact that does not exclude the possibility that the Sasanians entered in the region and at least sacked it [Goodchild, 1971, p. 51.Probably, in plundering the region the Persians followed the same direction of the subsequent Arabian conquest: Goodchild, 1967, fig. 1; Roques, 1994, fig. at p. 76].

Some material evidence on the Sasanian occupation of Egypt can be associated to the textiles recovered in the beginning of 20th century at Antinoe. Coptic art displays clear borrowings from Persian art, especially regarding sumptuous articles such as ivory and textiles, but much of these relics are definitely a local Egyptian production [Badawy, 1987, pp. 18-29. Specifically on Egyptian textiles displaying Iranian borrowings: Benaki Museum, 1972, pp. 24-25, fig. 1; Renner, 1981, p. 294; Trilling, 1982].

Three silk fragments from the funerary complex of Antinoe could be considered external importation, not only for the iconography but also for the same weaving techniques [Ghirshman, 1982, figs. 273, 277-278 ; Martiniani-Reber, 1986, pp. 44-46, cat. 10-11 ; Martiniani Reber, 1997, pp. 50-53, 111-112; cat. 4, 6]. The subjects of the ornamentation are winged horses in pearl roundels (fig. 3) and rams both in pearl roundels and disposed in horizontal bands. Elements such as the disposition of the horns of the rams, the wings of the pegasus, the collars with three pendants and the floating ribbons are all Iranian characteristics (fig. 4).

Figure 3

Figure 4

The same pearl roundels frame -although presenting some obscure points on its origins and significance- is a typical solution of Iranian art of Persia and Central Asia, and knew a very wide diffusion in the ancient world [Venco Ricciardi, 1968-69; Meister, 1970; Carmel, 1990; Jeroussalimskaja, 1993; Compareti, 1997/98; Otavsky, 1998].

Much was said about such textiles but at this moment of time is not yet possible to assert if they are an example of Persian or Central Asian (most likely Sogdian) production [Pfister, 1948; de Francovich, 1963, p. 173; Geijer, 1963; Grabar, 1971, p. 683; Manson-Bier, 1978, fig. 51; McDowell, 1995, p. 69; Compareti, forthcoming 2002], arrived in Egypt because of the exceptional extension of the Sasanian Empire under Khosrow II, from North-Eastern Africa to Central Asia.

Some prominent figures in Nubian paintings are represented wearing garments embellished with pearl roundels patterns. This could be an indirect Iranian reflection happened through contacts with Constantinople and the Arabs, in fact all the paintings are dated to an epoch comprised between 9th and 12th century [Innemée, 1992, pp. 161-63. For specimens of roundels on the garments of persons depicted in the paintings of the cathedral at Faras (Nubia), dated 9th-11th centuries: Michalowski, 1966, pl. V.2, XIV.2, XVI.1; Michalowski, 1974, pls. 55, 56 and fig. at p. 254; Martens-Czarnecka, 1982, pl. 29 (first half of the 9th century). For specimens of pearl roundels enclosing confronted birds besides a tree on the garments of a religious person, in the paintings of the apse at Faras, dated to 12th century: Martens-Czarnecka, 1982, pp. 91, 98, pl. 157. On Egypt as a place of production and exportation of precious fabrics during the Islamic period (but showing Iranian-Byzantine heritage): Calderini, 1946; Lombard, 1978, pp. 35-38, 47-50, 70-71, 94, 151-74; Del Francia, 1994; Compareti, 1997/98/99].

A unique woollen textile recovered in the monastery of Däbrà Dammò (Ethiopia, 6th century A.D. -but restored several times), considered Sasanian in a first moment, seems most likely later (fig. 5) [Mordini, 1960.b, pp. 233-34, fig. A. Textiles were imported in Ethiopia since the 1st century A.D., especially from Egypt: Munro-Hay, 1991, pp. 130-131, 137-138 (see also: Munro-Hay, 1982, p. 110)].

Figure 5

Echoes of post-Sasanian and Islamic court arts exist also in Ethiopian paintings, especially in those dated 10th-13th centuries A.D. [Etiopici, centri e tradizioni, 1971, p. 132; Lepage, 1975, p. 70 and figures at page 66 and 71; Lepage, 1977, pp. 337-40 fig. 8, p. 342 fig. 9]. Recently, Sasanian borrowings accepted through Byzantine art were claimed for a unique Aksumite miniature from Abba Gärima (Ethiopia) at Mädära, dated 6th-9th century (fig. 6) [Lepage, 1990, fig. 3, p. 809; Mercier, 2000, pp. 42-43, fig. 2].

Figure 6

Sasanian elements in Ethiopian art were then claimed for the wooden panels at Däbrà Dammò dated 10th century -most likely of Coptic inspiration [Conti Rossini, 1928, pl. XXXVIII, 116; Mordini, 1947; Etiopi, centri e tradizioni, 1971, pp. 130-31; Anfray, 1990, pp. 170-172] - and in pottery [Etiopici, centri e tradizioni, 1971, p. 133].

In other part of south-eastern African coast, the so called Partho-Sasanian and Sasanian-Islamic ware production appeared during excavations from Somalia to Mozambique [Smith, Wright, 1988, pp. 121, 140; Freeman-Grenville, 1988.a, p. 5; Horton, 1996, pp. 441, 445-446, 449]. Then, some Parthian and Sasanian coins were recovered in Zanzibar (Tanzania) [Horton, 1996, p. 447] and other parts of the Eastern African coast [Freeman-Grenville, 1988.b, p. 5; Knappert, 1992, pp. 146, 150-151].

It is possible that the Sasanians were in contact with a not identified African kingdom since the reign of Narseh (293-302). In fact, the inscription of Paikuli says about the relations with a Zand afrik shah, where Zand (or Zang) is probably the Persian form of the Greek Azania, that is to say, the eastern African coast [Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, p. 314; Monneret de Villard, 1948, p. 157], a place where many Persians migrated in the Islamic period [Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, pp. 335-336].

Such discoveries, in addition to archaeological excavations in the Persian Gulf and in localities as far as Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, seem to support what the sources say about an impressive maritime expansion of the late Sasanians [Conti Rossini, 1928, p. 198; Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, pp. 313-317; Williamson, 1972; Whitehouse, Williamson, 1973; Wilkinson, 1973; Whitehouse, 1979; Wilkinson, 1979, pp. 888-889; Qatar Archaeological Report, 1978, pp. 147-149; Wilkinson, 1983, pp. 190-192; Frye, 1983; Prickett-Fernando, 1990; Tampoe, 1990; Gropp, 1991; Fiorani-Piacentini, 1992; Kervran, 1994; Whitehouse, 1996; Kennet, 1997]. According to Tabari, Khosrow I Anoshirvan would have even subdued a Sri Lankan kingdom and also the Somali coast with an expedition not dissimilar than the one which took Yemen [Conti Rossini, 1928, p. 200; Monneret de Villard, 1937-38, p. 315, note 2; Imam, 1996, p. 173. On the Sasanian coins recovered during archaeological excavations in Sri Lanka: Boperachchi, 1993, p. 79].

The information given by Tabari must be considered cautiously but it should not wonder so much since the historian Procopius reported of the impossibility of the Aksumite agents -sent on request of the Byzantine Emperor- of competing with the Persian merchants on the Indian and Sri Lankan market . It would be interesting to know if the Persians had there a privileged treatment because they paid more the same goods requested by the Byzantines, or because they were protected by a threatening naval force which had, possibly, already given proof of its power in the Indian Ocean.

The second hypothesis would seem more convincing (and fascinating) especially in consideration of Tabari's records, albeit not supported, at the present state of knowledge, by direct archaeological evidence.


Image Sources:

Figure 1
Leroy, 1963, pl. CLXII.a

Figure 2
Leroy, 1963, pl. CLXIII.a

Figure 3
G. Azarpay, Sasanian Art beyond the Persian World, Mesopotamia and Iran in the Parthian and Sasanian Periods. Rejection and Revival c. 238 BC-AD 642, Proceedings of a Seminar in Memory of Vladimir G. Lukonin, ed. J. Curtis, London, 2000, pp. 67-75, fig. 16.

Figure 4
Ghirshman, 1982, fig. 273.

Figure 5
Mordini, 1960.b, fig. A.

Figure 6:
Mercier, 2000, fig. 2.



A. al-'Mad'aj, Yemen in Early Islam 9-233/630-847: a Political History, London, 1988.

M. Almagro, L. Caballero, J. Zozayana, A. Almagro, Qusayr 'Amra. Residencia y baños omeyas en el desierto de Jordania, Madrid, 1975.

R. Altheim-Stiehl, Wurde Alexandreia im Juni 619 n. Chr. Durch die Perser erobert? Bemerkungen zur zeitlichen Bestimmung der sasanidischen Besetzung Ägyptens unter Chosrau II. Parwez, Tyche, 1991, pp. 3-16.

R. Altheim-Stiehl, The Sasanians in Egypt. Some Evidence of Historical Interest, Bulletin de la societé d'archéologie copte, XXXI, 1992, pp. 87-96.

R. Altheim-Stiehl, Egypt. iv. Relations with Persia in the Sasanian Period, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. VIII, ed. E. Yarshater, Costa Mesa (California), 1998, pp. 252-254.

F. Anfray, Les anciens Éthiopiens. Siècles d'histoire, Paris, 1990.

Atlante storico del popolo ebraico, Bologna, 1995.

Atlas zur Geschichte, Band I, Leipzig, 1973.

A. Badawy, L'art copte: les influences orientales (Perse et Syrie), Rivista degli Studi Orientali, vol. LVIII, fasc. 1-4, 1984, pp. 13-48.

F. Barishic, Le siège de Costantinople par les Avares et les Slaves en 626, Byzantion, tome XXIV, fasc. 2, 1954, pp. 371-395.

N. H. Baynes, The Date of the Avar Surprise, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 21, 1912, pp. 110-128.

Benaki Museum, Persian Art in the Benaki Museum, Athens, 1972.

O. Boperachchi, La circulation des monnais d'origine étrangèr dans l'antique Sri Lanka, Circulation des monnais des merchandises et des liens, Res Orientales, vol. V, Bur-sur-Yvette, 1993, pp. 63-87.

C. E. Bosworth, Iran and the Arabs Before Islam, The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3 (1), The Seleucids, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. E. Yarshater, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 593-612.

C. E. Bosworth, Abna', Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. II, ed. E. Yarshater, London, Boston, Henley, 1985, pp. 226-228.

C. E. Bosworth, Arabs and Iran in the Pre-Islamic Period, Encyclopaedia iranica, ed. E. Yarshater, Costa Mesa (California), 1985-87, pp. 201-203.

E. Bresciani, The Persian Occupation of Egypt, The Canbridge History of Iran. Vol. 2. The Median and Achaemenian Periods, ed. I. Gershevitch, Cambridge, 1985 (reprint 1993), pp. 502-528.

S. Brock, Syriac Sources for Seventh-Century History, Byzantine and Greek Studies. II, Oxford, 1976 (reprint in Syriac Prospectives on late Antiquity. Variorum Reprints, London, 1984).

A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion, Oxford, 1902.

S. Calderini, Ricerche sull'industria e il commercio dei tessuti in Egitto, Aegyptus, 26, 1946, pp. 13-83.

A. Carile, Political Interactions between Byzantium and Iran in VIIth Century, Kontakte zwischen Iran, Byzanz und der Steppe in 6.-7. Jh., ed. Cs. Bálint, Budapest, 2000, pp. 185-192.

L. Carmel, An Exploration of a Textile Pattern: Pearl Roundels Joined by Smaller Pearl Discs, Unpublished M. A. Qualifying Paper, University of Maryland at College Park, 1990.

C. G. Cereti, Primary Sources on the History of Inner and Outer Iran in the Sasanian Period, Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, 9, 1995-1997.

A. Christensen, L'Iran sous les Sassanides, Copenhagen 1944 (reprint Osnabrück, 1971).

M. Compareti, Un motivo ornamentale iranico nei tessuti del Xinjiang, Qinghai e Gansu, Venezia, 1997/98 (Unpublished University Dissertation, Departement of Oriental Studies, University Ca' Foscari of Venice).

M. Compareti, La décoration des vêtements du roi Gagik Arcruni à Alt'amar, Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Essays in Memory of Paolo Cuneo, 1-2, 1997/98/99, pp. 88-95.

M. Compareti, Intorno all'iranica Fenice/Samand. II. Note sull'iconografia del pegaso e del cavallo bardato nell'arte iranica, Forthcoming 2002.

J. M. Cook, The Rise of the Achaemenids and Establishment of Their Empire, The cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 2. The Median and Achaemenian Periods, ed. I. Gershevitch, Cambridge, 1985 (reprint 1993), pp. 200-291.

K. A. C. Creswell, Early Muslim Architecture, Umayyads A.D. 622-750, vol. I, Part II, New York, 1979.

P. Crone, The 'Abbasid abna' and Sasanid Cavalrymen, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 8, part 1, 1998, pp. 1-19.

A. de Maigret, Arabia Felix. Un viaggio nell'archeologia dello Yemen, Milano, 1996.

F. Decret, Le Manichéisme en Afrique du Nord ancienne, Corso di perfezionamento in Storia del Cristianesimo Antico, a cura di N. Del Gatto, Napoli, 1999, pp. 160-177.

R. Devreesse, Arabes-Perses et Arabes-Romains Lakhmides et Ghassanides, Vivre et penser (Revue Biblique), IIe série, 1942, pp. 263-307.

B. Doe, L'Arabia Felice mitica terra della Regina di Saba, Roma, 1982.

A. Frolow, La vraie croix et les expéditions d'Héraclius en Perse, Revue des études byzantines, t. XI, 1953, pp. 88-105.

G. de Francovich, L'Egitto, la Siria e Costantinopoli: problemi di metodo, Rivista dell'Istituto Nazionale d'Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte, N. S., XI-XII, 1963, pp. 83-229.

L. del Francia Barocas, La seta in Egitto. Tessuti con rappresentazioni di figure umane, La seta e la sua via, M. T. Lucidi (Curator), Roma, 1994, pp. 83-87.

C. Dihel, L'Afrique byzantine. Histoire de la domination byzantine en Afrique (533-709), Paris, 1896.

Etiopici, centri e tradizioni, Enciclopedia Universale dell'Arte, vol. V, Firenze, 1971, pp. 118-135.

V. Fiorani-Piacentini, Merchants-merchandises and Military Power in the Persian Gulf, atti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Serie IX, vol. III, fasc. 2, Rome, 1992.

G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, Kenya Coast Revisited: Archaeology, Archives, History, The Swahili Coast, 2nd to 19th Centuries. Islam, Christianity and Commerce in Eastern Africa, Variourum Reprint, London, 1988.a (article V).

G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, The Times of Ignorance in a Review of Pre-Islamic and Early Isalmic Settlements on the East African Coast, The Swahili Coast, 2nd to 19th Centuries. Islam, Christianity and Commerce in Eastern Africa, Variourum Reprint, London, 1988.b (article II).

W. H. C. Frend, Nubia as an Outpost of Byzantine Cultural Influence, Byzantinoslavica, II, 1968, pp. 319-326.

D. Frendo, Theophylact Simocatta on the Revolt of Bahram Chobin and the Early Career of Khusrau II, Bulletin of the Iranian Institute, n.s., vol. 3, 1989, pp. 77-88.

R. N. Frye, Bahrain Under the Sasanians, Dilmun. New Studies in the Archaeology and Early History of Bahrain, ed. D. T. Potts, Berlin, 1983, pp. 167-170.

I. Gadja, ðugr b. 'Amr roi de Kinda et l'établissement de la domination |imyarite en Arabie centrale, Proceedings of the 29th Seminar for Arabian Studies, vo. 26, 1996, pp. 65-73.

I. Gajda, L'Arabia del Sud unificata da Himyar, Yemen. Nel paese della regina di Saba, S. Antonini (curator), Milano,2000, pp. 226-229.

N. Garsoïan, Byzantium and the Sasanians, The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3 (1), The Seleucids, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. E. Yarshater, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 568-592.

A. Geijer, A Silk from Antinoe and Sasanian Textile Art, Orientalia Suecana, vol. XII, 1963, pp. 2-36.

General History of Africa. II. Ancient Civilizations of Africa, ed. G. Mokhtar, Paris, 1990.

General History of Africa. III. Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, ed. I. Hrfek, Paris, 1992.

R. Ghirshman, Arte persiana. Parti e Sasanidi, Milano, 1982.

C. Giglio, L'Africa dall'invasione araba alla fine del XVIII secolo, C. Giglio, R. Oliver, A. Atmore, Africa. Nuova storia dei popoli e delle civiltà, Torino, 1980, pp. 1-342.

R. G. Goodchild, Byzantines, Berbers and Arabs in 7th-century Libya, Antiquity, XLI, 1967, pp. 114-124.

R. G. Goodchild, Kyrene und Apollonia, Zürich, 1971.

P. Goubert, Les rapports de Khosrau II roi des rois sassanide aved l'empereur Maurice, Byzantion, tome XIX, 1949, pp. 79-98.

A. Grabar, Le rayonnement de l'art sassanide dans le monde chrétien, La Persia nel Medioevo, Roma, 1971, pp. 679-707.

G. Gropp, Christian Maritime Trade of Sasanian Age in the Persian Gulf, Internationale Archäologie, 6, Golf-Archäologie.

Mesopotamien, Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Vereinigte Arabische Emiraten und Oman, eds. K. Schippmann, A. Herling, J. F. Salles, 1991, pp. 83-88.

S. Hable Sellassie, Church and State in the Aksumite Period, Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, vol. I, Addis Ababa, 1969, pp. 5-8.

J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century. The Transfirmation of a Culture, Cambridge, 1990.

J. Harmatta, The Struggle for the Possession of South Arabia between Aksum and the Sasanians, Quarto Congresso Internazionale di Studi Etiopici. I, Roma, 1974, pp. 95-100.

J. Harmatta, The Struggle for the "Silk Route" between Iran, Byzantium and the Türk Empire from 560 to 630 A.D., Kontakte zwischen Iran, Byzanz und der Steppe in 6.-7. Jh., ed. Cs. Bálint, Budapest, 2000, pp. 249-252.

T. M. Hickey, Who Really Led the Sassanian Invasion of Egypt?, Nineteenth Annual Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers, (4-7 November 1993, Princeton University. Section: Byzantium and Its Eastern Frontiers, pp. 3-6), Princeton (New Jersey), 1993, p. 3.

M. J. Higgins, Chosroe II's Votive Offerings at Sergiopolis, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 48, 1, 1955, pp. 89-102.

M. C. Horton, Early Maritime Trade and Settlement Along the Coasts of Eastern Africa, The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, ed. J. Reade, London, New York, 1996, pp. 439-459.

Ph. Huyse, Ethiopia. ii. Pre-Islamic Period, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. IX, ed. E. Yarshater, New York, 1999, pp. 7-8.

S. A. Imam, Cultural Relations Between Sri Lanka and Iran, Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, eds. S. Bandaranayake, L. Dewaraja, R. Silva, K. D. G. Wimalarante, Colombo, 1990, pp. 173-178.

K. C. Innemé, Ecclesiastical Dress in Medieval Near East, Leiden, New York, Köln, 1992.

J. Jarry, Le Manichéisme en Egypte Byzantine, Bulletin de l'Institute Française d'Archéologie Orientale, 66, 1968, pp. 121-137.

S. Jacobielski, Faras. III. A History of the Bishopic of Pachoras on the Basis of Coptic Inscriptions, Warszawa, 1972.

A. Jeroussalimskaja, Soieries sassanides, L'empire perse entre Rome et la Chine [224-642], Bruxelles, 1993, pp. 113-119.

E. J. Keall, Forerunners of Umayyad Art : Sculptural Stone From the Hadramawt, Muqarnas, vol. 12, 1995.a, pp. 11-23.

E. J. Keall, A Second Attempt to Understand the Historical Context of Husn al- 'Urr in the Hadramawt, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, vo. 25, 1995.b, pp. 55-62.

E. J. Keall, Carved Stone From the Hadramawt in Yemen: is it Sasanian?, The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia. New Light on the parthian and Sasanian Empires, ed. V. S. Curtis, R. Hillenbrand, J. M. Rogers, London, New York, 1998, pp. 141-149.

D. Kennet, Kush: a Sasanian and Islamic-Period Archaeological Tell in Ras al-Khaimah (United Arab Emirates), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, vol. 8, n° 2, 1997, pp. 284-302.

M. Kervran, Forteresses, entrepôts et commerce: une histoire à suivre depuis les rois sassanides jusqu'aux princes d'Ormuz, Itinéraires d'Orient. Hommages à Claude Cahen, Res Orientales, vol. VI, Bures-sur-Yvette, 1994, pp. 325-350.

L. P. Kirwan, The Birth of Christian Nubia: Some Archaeological Problems, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, vol. LVIII, fasc. 1-4, 1984, pp. 119-134.

J. Knappert, The East African Coast: Some Notes on Its History, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 23, 1992, pp. 143-178.

Y. M. Kobischanov, The Sea Voyages of Ancient Ethiopians in the Indian Ocean, Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. I, Addis Ababa, 1969, pp. 19-23.

Y. M. Kobishchanov, Axum, University Park and London, 1979.

R. C. C. Law, North Africa in the Period of Phoenician and Greek Colonization, c. 800 to 323 BC, The Cambridge History of Africa. vol. 2. From 500 B.C. to A.D. 1050, general eds. J. D. Foge, R. Oliver, Cambridge, 1978, pp. 87-147.

C. Lepage, Le premier art chrétien d' Éthiopie. Du Ve au XVIe siècle, Découverte de l' Éthiopie chrétienne, Dossier d'archéologie, 8, Janvier-Février 1975, pp. 31-79.

C. Lepage, Histoire de l'ancienne peinture éthiopienne (Xe-XVe siècle). Résultats des missions de 1971 à 1977, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1977, pp. 325-376.

C. Lepage, Contribution de l'ancien art d'Éthiopie à la conaissance des autres arts chrétiens, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1990, pp. 799-822.

J. Leroy, Les "Éthiopiens" de Persépolis, Annales d'Éthiopie, t. V, 1963, pp. 293-295.

M. Lombard, Les textiles dans le monde musulman du VIIe au XIIe siècle, Paris -La Haye -New York, 1978.

L. S. B. Mac Coull, Coptic Egypt During the Persian Occupation. The Papyrological Evidence, Studi classici e Orientali, XXXV, 1986, pp. 307-313.

H. A. Macmichael, A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People who Preceded them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfur, London, 1967.

A. M. Maeir, Sassanica Varia Palestiniensia: a Sassanian Seal from T. Istaba, Israel, and Other Sassanian Objects from Southern Levant, Iranica Antiqua, vol. XXXV, 2000, pp. 159-183.

C. Mango, Deux études su Byzance et la Perse sassanide. II. Héraclius, Shahrvaraz et la Vraie Croix, Travaux et mémoires, 9, 1985, pp.

M. M. Mango, Byzantine, Sasanian and Central Asian Silver, Kontakt zwischen Iran, Byzanz und der Steppe in 6-7. Jh., ed. Cs. Balint, Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, IX, Budapest, 2000, pp. 267-284.

C. Manson Bier, Textiles, P. O. Harper, The Royal Hunter, New York, 1978, pp. 119-125.

M. Martens-Czarnecka, Faras. VII. Les éléments décoratifs sur les peintures de la Cathédrale de Faras, Varsavie, 1972.

M. Martiniani-Reber, Soieries sassanides, coptes et byzantines Ve - Xe siècles, Paris, 1986.

M. Martiniani-Reber, Textiles et mode sassanides. Les tissus orientaux conservées au département des antiquités égyptiennes, Paris, 1997.

J. A. McDowell, Sasanian Textiles, 5000 Years of Textiles, ed. J. Harris, London, 1995, pp. 68-70.

M. Meister, The Pearl Roundel in Chinese Textile Design, Ars Orientalis, vol. 8, 1970, pp. 255-267.

J. Mercier, La peinture éthiopienne à l'époque axoumite et au XVIIIe siècle, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, fasc. I, 2000, pp. 35-71.

K. Michalowski, Faras. Centre antique de la Nubie chrétienne, Leiden, 1966.

K. Michalowski, Faras, Zürich, 1967.

K. Michalowski, Faras, Das wunder aus Faras, Essen, 1969, pp. 9-26.

K. Michalowski, Faras. Die Wandbilder im den Sammlungen des Nationalmusems zur Warschaw, Warszawa-Dresden, 1974.

U. Monneret de Villard, Note sulle influenze asiatiche nell'Africa Orientale, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, vol. XVII, fasc. IV, 1937-38, pp. 303-349.

U. Monneret de Villard, Storia della Nubia cristiana, Roma, 1938.

U. Monneret de Villard, 'Aksum e i quattro re del mondo, Annali Lateranensi, vol. XII, 1948, pp. 125-180.

A. Mordini, Il soffitto del secondo vestibolo dell'Enda Abuna Aragawi in Dabra Dammó, Rassegna di Studi Etiopici, vol. VI, fasc. I, 1947, pp. 29-35.

A. Mordini, Gli aurei Kushana del convento di Dabra-Damo. Un indizio sui rapporti commerciali fra l'India e l'Etiopia, Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi Etiopici, Roma, 1960.a, pp. 249-254.

A. Mordini, I tessili medievali del convento di Dabra Dammó, Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi Etiopici, Roma, 1960.b, pp. 228-248.

R. Morkot, Nubia and Achaemenid Persia: Sources and Problems, Achaemenid History VI. Asia Minor and Egypt: Old Culture in a New Empire, ed. H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, A. Kuht, Leiden, 1991, pp. 321-335.

M. G. Morony, Syria Under the Persians 610-629, ed. M. Adnam Bakhit, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on the History of Bilad al-Sham During the Early Islamic Period up to 40 A.H./640 A.D. The Fourth International Conference on the History of Bilad al-Sham, vol. I, Annam, 1987, pp. 87-95.

M. Morony, Sasanids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. IX, eds. C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs, G. Lecomte, Leiden, 1997, pp. 70-83.

J. R. Martindale, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Cambridge, 1992.

W. W. Muller, Survey of the Arbian Peninsula from the First Century A.D. to the Rise of Islamic, Pre-Islamic Arabia, ed. A. R. al-Ansary, Ryadh, 1984, pp. 125-131.

S. C. H. Munro-Hay, The Foreign Trade of the Aksumite Port of Adulis, Azania, 17, 1982, pp. 107-125.

S. C. H. Munro-Hay, Kings and Kingdoms of Ancient Nubia, Rassegna di Studi Etiopici, vol. XXIX, 1982-83, pp. 87-137.

S. C. H. Munro-Hay, Aksum. An African Civilization of Late Antiquity, Edinburgh, 1991.

S. C. Munro-Hay, The Iconography of Axumite Coins, Aspect of Ethiopian Art from Ancient Axum to the Twentieth Century, ed. P. B. Henze, London, 1993, pp. 28-32.

S. C. H. Munro-Hay, Aksumite Overseas Interests, The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, ed. J. Reade, London, New York, 1996, pp. 403-416 ( the same article was published also in Northeast African Studies, vol. 13, n. 2-3, 1991, pp. 127-140).

Th. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden aus der arbischen Chronik des Tabari, Leyden, 1879 (reprint, 1973).

K. Otavsky, Zur kunsthistorischen Einordung der Stoffe, Entlang der Seidenstraße. Frühmittelalterliche Kunst zwischen Persien und China in der Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberger Berichte 6, Riggisberg, 1998.b, pp. 119-214.

A. Palmer, Une chronique syriaque contemporaine de la conquête arabe. Essai d'interprétation théologique et politique, La Syrie de Byzance à l'Islam VIIe-VIIIe siècles, eds. P. Canivet, J.-P. Rey-Coquais, Damas, 1992, pp. 31-46.

M. Papathomopoulos, Byzantine Influence on North Africa. Three Little Known Sources: John of Biclar's Chronicon (ca. 590 A.D.), The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy in Africa (650-700 A.D.) and Thronos Alexandrinos (675-703). A Preliminary Report, Gli interscambi culturali fra l'Africa settentrionale e l'Europa mediterranea. Atti del congresso Internazionale di Amalfi, a cura di L. Serra, vol. I, Napoli, 1986, pp. 339-341.

P. Peeters, Les ex-voto de Khosrau Aparwez à Sergiopolis, Analecta Bollandiana, LXV, 1947, pp. 5-56.

D. W. Phillipson, Ancient Ethiopia. Aksum: Its Antecedents and Successors, London, 1998.

H.-J. Polotsky, Il Manicheismo gnosi di salvezza tra Egitto e Cina, a cura di C. Leurini, A. Panaino, A. Piras, Rimini, 1996.

M. Pricket-Fernando, Durable Goods: the Archaeological Evidence of Sri Lanka's Role in the Indian Ocean Trade, Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, eds. S. Bandaranayake, L. Dewaraja, R. Silva, K. D. G. Wimalarante, Colombo, 1990, pp. 61-84.

A. Pertusi, La Persia nelle fonti bizantine del secolo VII, La Persia nel Medioevo, Roma, 1971.

Qatar Archaeological Report. Excavations 1973, ed. B. De Cardi, Oxford, 1978.

M. Rassart, La Nubie chrétienne. Terre de rencontre de l'Egypte copte et de l'Éthiopie chrétienne, Annuaire de l'Institute de Philologie et d'Histoire Orientales et Slaves, t. XX, 1973, pp. 363-377.

D. Renner, Stoffe tardoantiche e copte da tombe egiziane, Corso di Cultura sull'Arte Ravennate e Bizantina, XXVIII, 1981, pp. 281-298.

M. Roaf, The Subject Peoples on the Base of the Statue of Darius, Cahiers de la D.A.F.A., IV, 1974, pp. 73-160.

C. Robin, Le royaume ðujride, dit "Royaume de Kinda", entre ðimyar et Byzance, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, fasc. II, 1993, pp. 665-714.

D. Roques, Le Bas-Empire et l'epoque byzantine, Le dossiers de l'archéologie, n° 167, Janvier 1992, pp. 16-27.

D. Roques, Procope de Césarée et la Cyrénaïque du 6e s. ap. J.C. (résumé), Libyan Studies, 25, 1994, pp. 259-264.

G. Scarcia, Cosroe Secondo, San Sergio e il Sade, Studi sull'Oriente Cristiano, 4, 2, 2000, pp. 171-227.

R. Schik, Jordan on the Eve of the Muslim Conquest A.D. 602-634, La Syrie de Byzance à l'Islam VIIe-VIIIe siècles, eds. P. Canivet, J.-P. Rey-Coquais, Damas, 1992, pp. 107-119.

K. Schippmann, Grundzüge der Geschichte des Sasanidischen Reiches, Darmstadt, 1990.

A. Sh. Shahbazi, Byzantine-Iranian Relations, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. IV, ed. E. Yarshater, London, New York, 1990, pp. 588-599.

I. Shahîd, Kinda, Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. V, ed. C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat, Leiden, 1986.a, pp. 118-120.

I. Shahîd, Lakhmids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. V, ed. C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat, Leiden, 1986.b, pp. 118-120.

P. L. Shinnie, The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia, c. 600 BC to c. AD 600, The Cambridge History of Africa. vol. 2. From 500 B.C. to A.D. 1050, general eds. J. D. Foge, R. Oliver, Cambridge, 1978.a, pp. 210-271.

P. L. Shinnie, Christian Nubia, The Cambridge History of Africa. vol. 2. From 500 B.C. to A.D. 1050, general eds. J. D. Foge, R. Oliver, Cambridge, 1978.b, pp. 556-588.

M. C. Smith, H. T. Wright, The Ceramics from Ras Hafun in Somalia: Some Notes on a Classical Maritime Site, Azania, vol. XXIII, 1988, pp. 115-141.

G. R. Smith, The Political History of the Islamic Yemen Down to the First Turkish Invasion (1-945/622-1538), Yemen: 3000 Years of Art and Civilization in Arbia Felix, ed. G. W. Daum, New York, 1988, pp. 129-139.

S. Smith, Events in Arabia in the 6th Century A.D., Bulletin of the Society of Oriental and African Studies, vol. XVI, part 3, 1954, pp. 425-468.

F. M. Snowden, Blacks in the Antiquity. Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience, London, 1971.

A. N. Stratos, Byzantium in the Seventh Century. I. 602-634, Translated by M. Ogilvie-Grant, Amsterdam, 1968.

M. Tampoe, Tracing the Silk Road of the Sea: Ceramic and Other Evidence from the Partner Ports of the Western Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, eds. S. Bandaranayake, L. Dewaraja, R. Silva, K. D. G. Wimalarante, Colombo, 1990, pp. 85-103.

L. Török, The Kingdom of Kush. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization, Leiden, New York, Köln, 1997.

C. Toumanoff, Medieval Georgian Historical Literature, Traditio, 1, 1943, pp. 139-182.

A. Tourovets, Nouvelles propositions et problemes relatifs a l'identification des delegations de l'escalier est de l'Apadana (Persepolis), Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan, band 33, 2001, pp. 219-256.

J. Trilling, The Roman Heritage. Textiles from Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean 300 to 600 A.D., Washington D.C., 1982.

E. van Donzel, Ethiopia. ii. Islamic Period, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. IX, ed. E. Yarshater, New York, 1999, pp. 8-9.

G. Vantini, The Excavation at Faras. A Contribution to the History of Christian Nubia, Bologna, 1970.

G. Vantini,The Excavations at Faras. A Contribution to the History of Christian Nubia, Bologna, 1971.

G. Vantini, Christianity in the Sudan, Verona, 1981.

G. Vantini, Il Cristianesimo nella Nubia antica, Verona, 1985.

R. Venco Ricciardi, Note sull'arte tessile sasanide, Mesopotamia, III-IV, 1968-69, pp. 385-415.

M. von Esbroeck, Armenia and Iran. iv. Accounts of Iran in Armenian Sources, Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. II, ed. E. Yarshater, London, New York, 1987.

H. von Wissmann, Himyar, Ancient History, Le Muséon, LXXVII, 1964, pp. 429-499.

G. Walser, Völkerschaften auf den Reliefs von Persepolis. Historische Studien über den sogennanten Tributzug an der Apadanatrappe, Berlin, 1966.

S. L. Weiner, Sources for the Development of Rock-Cut Architecture and Sculptures: the Nubian Connection, The Art of Ajanta. New Perspectives. II, New Delhi, 1991, pp. 390-406.

D. Whitehouse, Maritime Trade in the Arabian Sea: The 9th and 10th Centuries AD, South Asian Archaeology 1977, ed. M. Taddei, vol. 2, Naples, 1979, pp. 865-885.

D. Whitehouse, Sasanian Maritime Activity, The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, ed. J. Reader, London, New York, 1996, pp. 339-349.

D. Whitehouse, A. Williamson, Sasanian Maritime Trade, Iran, 11, 1973, pp. 29-49.

J. C. Wilkinson, øu|ar (Sohar) in the Early Islamic Period: The Written Evidence, South Asian Archaeology 1977, ed. M. Taddei, vol. 2, Naples, 1979, pp. 887-907.

J. C. Wilkinson, The Origins of the Aflaj of Oman, The Journal of Oman Studies, vol. 6, part I, 1983, pp. 177-194.

A. Williamson, Persian Gulf Commerce in the Sassanian Period and the First Two Centuries of Islam, Bustan chenassi va honae-e Iran (Bastanshevassi o honar-e Iran), 9/10, December 1972, pp. 97-109.

G. Widengren, Sources of Parthian and Sasanian History, The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3 (2), The Seleucids, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. E. Yarshater, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 1261-1283.

M. H. Zotenberg, Chronique de Abou-Djafar-Mo'hammed-ben-Djarîn-ben-Yezid Tabari, Paris, 1869.

© the author/s
Actualizado el 24/07/2004
Valid HTML 4.01!
Any Browser!
Como lo hacemos?